A language of China

Alternate Names
Ewenk, Ewenke, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Owenke, Solon, Solong, Sulong, Suolun

11,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 15,800.


Heilongjiang province: Nale prefecture; a few in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulunbuir banners in Arong, Chen Bargu, Ergune East, Ewenki, Huisuomu, Moriadawa, Oronchon.

Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Ewenki.


Haila’er, Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), Morigele (Mergel), Huihe (Hoy). Standard dialect is Huihe. Dialectal differences within Evenki are small and the case for regarding Evenki and Orochen as separate languages is weak (Salminen 2007).

Language Use

Other speakers in the area also use Evenki. All domains. Adults only. Positive attitudes. Also use Daur [dta], Oroqen [orh]. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Written Chinese used as literary languages. Farmers use Chinese. Also use Peripheral Mongolian [mvf]. Written Mongolian used as literary language. Herdsmen use Mongolian as L2. Used as L2 by Daur [dta], Oroqen [orh].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 96%, literacy in any language (2000 census, Ewenki nationality). Radio. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1995.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl], used since 1937, small-scale use in Russia. Latin script [Latn], used in Russia in 1931–1937, limited use in a few publications in China and on internet from 1983.

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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