A language of Ghana

Alternate Names
Ebwe, Efe, Eibe, Eue, Eve, Gbe, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe
Èʋegbe‎ (Èwegbe)

3,820,000 in Ghana, all users. L1 users: 3,320,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 500,000. Total users in all countries: 4,685,760 (as L1: 4,185,760; as L2: 500,000).


Eastern region: Askuma town area, west of Lake Volta; Greater Accra region: easternmost; Volta region: easternmost.

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Language Status

3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44).


Anglo (Anlo), Awuna, Hudu, Kotafoa. Westernmost language of the Gbe language subgroup.


SVO; postpositions; noun head initial; no articles; no passives; tense and aspect; comparatives; 26 consonant and 12 vowel phonemes; tonal (3 phonemic tones: high, mid, low); verb serialization; whistle speech reported.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. Also use English [eng]. Used as L2 by Akposo [kpo], Avatime [avn], Logba [lgq], Nawdm [nmz], Nkonya [nko], Nyangbo [nyb], Sekpele [lip], Selee [snw], Tafi [tcd], Tuwuli [bov].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1911–2011.


Braille script [Brai]. Latin script [Latn], used since 1850s, primary usage.

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

Also spoken in:

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