Fulfulde, Maasina


A language of Mali

Alternate Names
Fulani, Fulbe, Macina, Peul, Toucouleur
Fulfulde, Maasinankoore

1,040,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,523,240.



Language Status

4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1).


Western Macina, Eastern Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful].

Language Use

All domains. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Bamanankan [bam]. Used as L2 by Ana Tinga Dogon [dti], Bankan Tey Dogon [dbw], Bunoge Dogon [dgb], Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo], Tieyaxo Bozo [boz].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 5% (2007 S. Crickmore). Literacy rate in L2: 5% in Bambara [bam] (2007 S. Crickmore). Taught in primary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2005.


Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Latin script [Latn], official usage.

Other Comments

Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Muslim, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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