Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Nqlispélišcn, Salish, “Flathead-Kalispel” (pej.), “Kalispel-Flathead” (pej.)

64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend d’Oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997).


Montana: Flathead Reservation; Washington: Kalispel Reservation.

Language Status

8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation.


Pend d’Oreille, Kalispel, Bitterroot Salish, Flathead.

Language Use

Shifting to English [eng]. General communication among fluent elders with extensive code-switching to English [eng], prayers. Elderly only. Also use English [eng].

Language Development

Dictionary. Grammar. Flathead dialect classes in some reservation schools and at the tribal college. Language camp in the summer. Kalispel Tribe has begun documentation and revitalization program (Golla 2007).

Other Comments

Spokane [spo] is a coordinate language variety.

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