Friulian

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Friulian language - more information about writing

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:14
Regarding: 
Writing
ISO 639-3: 
fur

Latin script.

Editorial Action

No action taken.

Friulian language - other comments

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:13
Regarding: 
Other Comments
ISO 639-3: 
fur

To state, as reported in the online page, that “Some cultivate Friulian as a literary language”, is incorrect and incomplete, since the first literary documents in Friulian date back to the mid-13th and early 14th century. Nowadays the Friulian language is used in literature and poetry and in the arts generally (music, theatre and cinema, fiction, documentary film). You can find detailed information about the use of the Friulian language in the arts by consulting our website www.arlef.it. Please also take note that in this chapter you could insert the following information: Friûl is the name of the region.

Editorial Action

We removed the inaccurate comment about the cultivation of Friulian [fur] as a literary language, to be corrected in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information about language development

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:11
Regarding: 
Language Development
ISO 639-3: 
fur

Please take note that in this chapter you could insert the following information: Literacy rate: Low. Periodicals. Radio. Tv programmes. Dictionary. Grammar. Online linguistic tools. Bible: 1997-2019. Agency: Agjenzie Regjonâl pe Lenghe Furlane (ARLeF). The Friulian language is taught in primary schools in Udine, Gorizia and Pordenone provinces (30hours per year). Teaching in secondary schools in the three provinces is voluntary and based on each school’s syllabus. Some language courses are taught at the Universities of Udine, Trieste, Venice, Koper (SI) and Klagenfurt (AT). In 2007, the Region – pursuant to the Implementing Decree of the Autonomy Statute no. 223/2002 – introduced a regional law on the teaching of Friulian and subsequently (in 2011) it issued a series of regulations. Among other things, the legislation outlines a specific “Plan for the implementation of the Friulian teaching system” and proposes establishing a Regional list of Friulian teachers.

Editorial Action

We will update our information on language development for Friulian [fur], to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information about language use

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:10
Regarding: 
Language Use
ISO 639-3: 
fur

In addition to the information already published, it could be also useful to add the following: All domains. Spoken by over 60% of Friulian people; understood by 90%. Used by all. In the online page, you state that “Children who stop using Friulian, after having learned it at school, normally do shift to Venetian dialects”. This is not true: children who stop using Friulian simply use the Italian language. Friulian is used as L2 by Italian speakers, and by some Slovene speakers and German dialect speakers as well (the other minority languages spoken in the Friuli – Venezia Giulia Region).

Editorial Action

We will update our information on language use for Friulian [fur] in Italy, to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information typology

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:09
Regarding: 
Typology
ISO 639-3: 
fur

Although there is no information on this aspect, there are many linguistic features of Friulian that are worthy of mentioning. SVO; prepositions; prepositional locutions; most attributive adjectives come after noun, number and possessives before noun; question world (pronoun/prepositional phrase) at the beginning; relative sentences; verb affixes mark person, number, object; passives; tense; analytical verbs; comparative shown lexically; 2 series of personal pronouns: one series of stressed optional subject pronouns, and one series of clitic unstressed and compulsory pronouns; gender (masculine/feminine); definite and indefinite articles; 2 forms of plural (sigmatic and palatal); 21 consonants, 10 vowels [5 long vowels (â, ê, î, ô, û) and 5 short vowels (a, e, i , o , u); tonic vocalism: in phonological opposition the vowels have distinctive value)], 2 semivowels, 18 diphthongs, 7 digraphs; 3 diacritical marks; voiced and voiceless post-palatal sounds; no double-letters (except for SS); non-tonal; stress on last (most frequent) and on penultimate syllable.

Editorial Action

We will add information on the linguistic typology for Friulian [fur], to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information about dialects

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:09
Regarding: 
Dialects
ISO 639-3: 
fur

It is customary to distinguish four main groups of Friulian dialects, divided into a number of subvarieties: central Friulian, eastern Friulian, western Friulian, Carnic Friulian (spoken in Carnia, the northern part of the Friulian area). Common Friulian (also called koiné, from the Greek koiné glóssa ‘common language’) developed from the Friulian of the 19th- and the 20th-century literary tradition. Ladin and Romansh, mentioned in your website, are separate languages; hence it is not correct to include them among Friulian dialects. Ladin is a Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite mountains in northern Italy, generally in the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino and Belluno. It is recognized as a minority language in 54 Italian municipalities belonging to these provinces. Romansh is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grison, where it has official status alongside German and Italian. You can find more detailed information about the “Ladine issue” clicking here: https://arlef.it/app/uploads/page/friulian_language_the-ladin-issue.pdf You can also consult the “Manuale di Linguistica Friulana” by Sabine Heinmann (ed.) and Luca Melchior’s, Manuals of Romance Linguistics, De Gruyter; 2015.

Editorial Action

We will update our information on the dialect names for Friulian [fur] in Italy, to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information about language status

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:07
Regarding: 
Language Status
ISO 639-3: 
fur

The official recognition of the Friulian-speaking linguistic minority is quite recent and is underpinned by three laws: Regional Law no. 15 of 1996, State Law no. 482 of 1999 and Regional Law no. 29 of 2007. Previously, the only references to the Friulian language that could be found in legal texts, both State and Regional, were purely incidental, and inserted the protection of the language in a broader cultural promotion policy (Regional Law no. 68 of 1981, though advanced, falls within this scope). They were therefore measures that expanded article 9 of the Italian Constitution (protection of cultural heritage), rather than acknowledging the specific principle of minority protection, as laid down by article 6, according to which “The Republic protects linguistic minorities through appropriate legislation”. Regional Law 15/96 FVG Regional Law 15/96 was the first organic law to officially recognize Friulian as a language in its own right. It enabled local authorities to legislate on the use of Friulian in their deliberations, in place names and in their communication with their citizens in general. It established a Regional Service and the Friulian Language Observatory, replaced in 2005 by ARLeF (Regional Friulian Language Agency). It drafted the first measures to be taken in education and in the broadcasting system. State Law 482/99 Law 482/99 made it possible to complete and expand the protective aims already enshrined in the Regional Law. It included more specific legislation regarding the teaching of minority languages in Italy at school and recognized the general right to use these languages in all public administrations, as well as introducing regulations concerning public broadcasting, although generally not implemented as yet. Regional Law 29/2007, “Legislation on the protection, advancement and promotion of the Friulian language”. For the first time Friulian is recognized in law as the language of the Friuli region. These are the main features of the law: • Reference to the main international treaties. • Provision made for the teaching of Friulian at school. • Definition of the public contexts where the use of Friulian is consented and extension to acts of general application. • Language certification, with particular reference to civil servants. • Adoption of local place names and their semi-official status. • Organization of language planning You can find more detailed information about this law by clicking here: https://arlef.it/app/uploads/page/Legal_protection_Regional-Law-29_07-on.... Moreover, in addition to the information recorded on your website, it should be said that even though the Friulian language has all the features of a level 4 language in the EGIDS scale, it is also losing speakers due to a lack of intergenerational transmission. It therefore also displays level 6b dangers. Over the years unfortunately there has been a constant decrease in the use of the Friulian language, but luckily the last survey has highlighted some positive facts. The loss of the number of speakers has been reduced compared to what happened up to the 2000s. Today, this loss rate is 0.6% per annum, while in the last decades of the 20th century it was 1% per annum. Moreover, a new and extremely interesting phenomenon has emerged: young people (under thirty) speak Friulian more than the thirty- and forty-year-olds.

Editorial Action

We will update our information on the language status of Friulian [fur] in Italy, to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information about location

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:05
Regarding: 
Location
ISO 639-3: 
fur

In addition to the information recordered on your website, it should be said that Friulian is also spoken abroad, mainly in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Switzerland, France, Germany, USA, South Africa and Australia, due to the large Friulian emigration during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Editorial Action

No action taken.

Friulian language - more information about population

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:04
Regarding: 
Population
ISO 639-3: 
fur

Friuli-Venezia Giulia is an Autonomous Region governed by a Special Statute. It is part of the Republic of Italy and was established by Constitutional Law No. 1 of January 31, 1963. It consists of 4 provinces: Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine are the 3 provinces that form the "historical" Friuli, where the Friulian minority language is spoken; the province of Trieste generally speaking makes up the Venezia Giulia part of the Region (the city of Trieste is the capital of the Region). Total population: about 1.2 million In 2015, with the collaboration of the University of Udine and under the coordination of Claudio Melchior, Head of the Science Dept., ARLeF presented the complete data on the sociolinguistic survey of the Friulian language carried out in 2014. The data concerning the dissemination and understanding of Friulian in the territory covered by the survey are among the most significant findings. At present, 600,000 Friulian-speaking people live in the provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine. Of these, 420,000 regularly speak Friulian and 180,000 speak it occasionally. This represents more than 60% of the population of the three provinces. If we also take into account of the inhabitants of the province of Trieste, Friulian-speakers account for half of the total population of the Friuli - Venezia Giulia region. Almost all the Friulian population understands Friulian even if they do not speak it: in the provinces of Gorizia and Pordenone, more than 83% of the population understands Friulian. In the province of Udine this percentage exceeds 96%. This means that, overall, more than 90% of the inhabitants of these three provinces declare that they understand the Friulian language. The survey has been published in Italian language by Forum Editrice, Udine, in 2017: C. Melchior, "La lingua friulana oggi. Diffusione, opinioni e atteggiamenti sociali". You can find all the data of the survey here: https://arlef.it/en/language-and-culture/sociolinguistic-condition/.

Editorial Action

We will update the L1 speaker population for Friulian [fur] in Italy for the next edition of the Ethnologue.

Friulian language - more information

Federica, Fri, 2019-04-19 04:02
Regarding: 
Alternate Names
ISO 639-3: 
fur

Dear Sirs, ARLeF - Agjenzie Regjonâl pe Lenghe Furlane (Regional Friulian Language Agency) is a department of the Autonomous Region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia that coordinates activities involving the safeguarding and promotion of the Friulian language in accordance with Regional policy. The agency provides a language consultancy service for both public and private bodies and performs diverse actions to promote the presence and advance the use of the Friulian language in the main fields of social life, including the family, mass media, new technologies, public administration, scientific research, show business, the arts, culture and the working environment. Consulting the page of your site dedicated to the Friulian language, we noticed some inaccuracies. For this reason, we would like to highlight some points that will help in providing more detailed and correct information. I'll send you some notes on the individual chapters of sections that Ethnologue dedicates to the Friulian language. ALTERNATE NAMES • Priulian is not an alternate name. This form is not an esonym for our language and we have never found it in any source. • Marilenghe should be moved to the Autonym section, since it is an alternate name used by Friulian speakers to refer to their own language in Friulian

Editorial Action

We will add ARLeF as the language planning organization for Friulian [fur] in Italy, to appear in the next edition of the Ethnologue.