L1 users: 11,500,000 (2000), increasing. 340,000 in Sokoto. Total users in all countries: 11,585,000.
Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Borno state: Bororro, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto state: Sokoto. Market language.
3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC in the market in Bauchi, Gombe, and Borno states.
Kano-Katsina, Bororo (Aku, Fulfulde Caka Nigeria, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde, Woylaare), Sokoto. Intelligibility 40%–50% of Fulfulde [fub] Cameroon. Lexical similarity: highest with Fulfulde central-eastern Niger [fuq], then Adamawa Fulfulde [fub], then Fulfulde, Benin-Togo [fue], then western Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Guinea, and Senegal. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful].
Home, some use in market. All ages, but youth increasingly want to learn English. Mixed attitudes. Though proud of their oral and written language, they now view speaking and writing English [eng] as more prestigious. Used as L2 by Bali [bcn], Bena [yun], Bille [bil], Bokobaru [bus], Bure [bvh], Dera [kna], Duguri [dbm], Fali [fli], Ga’anda [gqa], Gude [gde], Hõne [juh], Hwana [hwo], Jara [jaf], Jibu [jib], Kaan [ldl], Kam [kdx], Kibaku [ckl], Kpasham [pbn], Kumba [ksm], Lala-Roba [lla], Lamnso’ [lns], Longuda [lnu], Mboi [moi], Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Mom Jango [ver], Ndoola [ndr], Ngwaba [ngw], Nigeria Mambila [mzk], Nya Huba [hbb], Nyong [muo], Peere [pfe], Ron [cla], Samba Daka [ccg], Shoo-Minda-Nye [bcv], Sukur [syk], Teme [tdo], Tsuvadi [tvd], Vemgo-Mabas [vem], Waja [wja], Yendang [ynq], Zeem [zua].
Sokoto is a major Fulbe geopolitical unit. Caka (Fulfulde Caka Nigeria dialect) means central. Muslim.