Fulfulde, Nigerian

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A language of Nigeria

Autonym
Fulfulde
Population

L1 users: 11,500,000 (2000), increasing. 340,000 in Sokoto. Total users in all countries: 11,585,000.

Location

Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Borno state: Bororro, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto state: Sokoto. Market language.

Language Status

3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC in the market in Bauchi, Gombe, and Borno states.

Dialects

Kano-Katsina, Bororo (Aku, Fulfulde Caka Nigeria, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde, Woylaare), Sokoto. Intelligibility 40%–50% of Fulfulde [fub] Cameroon. Lexical similarity: highest with Fulfulde central-eastern Niger [fuq], then Adamawa Fulfulde [fub], then Fulfulde, Benin-Togo [fue], then western Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Guinea, and Senegal. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful].

Language Use

Home, some use in market. All ages, but youth increasingly want to learn English. Mixed attitudes. Though proud of their oral and written language, they now view speaking and writing English [eng] as more prestigious. Used as L2 by Bali [bcn], Bena [yun], Bille [bil], Bokobaru [bus], Bure [bvh], Dera [kna], Duguri [dbm], Fali [fli], Ga’anda [gqa], Gude [gde], Hõne [juh], Hwana [hwo], Jara [jaf], Jibu [jib], Kaan [ldl], Kam [kdx], Kibaku [ckl], Kpasham [pbn], Kumba [ksm], Lala-Roba [lla], Lamnso’ [lns], Longuda [lnu], Mboi [moi], Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Mom Jango [ver], Ndoola [ndr], Ngwaba [ngw], Nigeria Mambila [mzk], Nya Huba [hbb], Nyong [muo], Peere [pfe], Ron [cla], Samba Daka [ccg], Shoo-Minda-Nye [bcv], Sukur [syk], Teme [tdo], Tsuvadi [tvd], Vemgo-Mabas [vem], Waja [wja], Yendang [ynq], Zeem [zua].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1% in Roman script; below 20% in Arabic script. Keen interest in younger generation learning to read and write. Literature. Texts. NT: 2007–2010.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], used since 2011. Latin script [Latn], used since 2003.

Other Comments

Sokoto is a major Fulbe geopolitical unit. Caka (Fulfulde Caka Nigeria dialect) means central. Muslim.

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