Garhwali

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali
Population

2,920,000 (2000 survey).

Location

Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).

Dialects

Badhani, Bangani, Bhattiani, Chandpuri, Dessaulya, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Jaunpuri, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Nagpuriya, Parvati, Rathi, Ravai, Salani (Pauri), Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya). Kumaoni [kfy] is most similar language; Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the, sweetest; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54%–69% with Hindi [hin], 55%–66% with Kumaoni [kfy]. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali.

Typology

SOV

Language Use

Vigorous. Home, village. All ages. Positive attitudes. Almost all use some Hindi [hin]; men, educated and youth are more fluent; Hindi used in the market.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand (2001 census). Older women lack literacy. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. NT: 1827–1994.
Writing
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Jaunpuri and Ravai dialects are culturally similar to Jaunsari and distinct from Garhwali. Castes are Brahmin, Rajput, Harijan. Hindu, traditional religion.