A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj

1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,390.


Khabarovskiy Kray: extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley, Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below.

Language Status

8a (Moribund).


Sunggari, Torgon, Kuro-Urmi, Ussuri, Akani, Birar, Kila, Samagir. Quite distinct dialects.

Language Use

Severely endangered. Older adults only. Mixed attitudes, from negative to mildly positive. Motivated to use Russian [rus]. Those under 40 consider Nanai unhelpful in life. Older generation pessimistic about possibility of preservation. Some also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn], especially elderly. Also use Russian [rus].

Language Development

Literature. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1884–2002.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl].

Other Comments

Traditional religion.

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