A language of Indonesia


L1 users: 1,000 (1992 SIL).


Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Utara regency, Bobane and Igo villages; Pulau Morotai regency, Pilowo and Waringin villages on Morotai island.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).


None known. A mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited.

Language Use

Under strong pressure from the languages from which the majority of its vocabulary seems to have originated (Wurm 2007). All domains.

Other Comments

Consider Sulawesi their ancestral homeland.

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