A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Daduwa, Tamu Kyi, Western Gurung

348,800 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 326,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 22,800 (2011 census). 12,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 381,800 (as L1: 359,000; as L2: 22,800).


Dhawalagiri zone: Parbat district; Gandaki zone: west Gorkha, Kaski, Lamjung, Tanahu, and Syangja districts; possibly Manang district.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gurung.


Central dialect of Gurung. Related to Thakali [ths].


SOV; postpositions; genitives, adjectives, relative clauses precede noun heads; numerals after noun heads; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; rising intonation marks bipolar questions; one negative prefix on verbs; up to 2 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; case of noun phrases is indicated by postpositions; no subject or object referencing in verbs; split ergative system according to tense; causatives; benefactives; aspect; no passives or voice; 24 consonant and 5 vowel phonemes; CV, CCV, CCCV; tonal: voice quality or register is part of the tone system.

Language Use

Children and young people use Gurung less frequently than those who are older. Passed down only a little from generation to generation (2002 UNESCO). Home; mixed use: Friends, religion, work, education. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes. Also use Lhomi [lhm], Nepali [npi]. Also use English [eng], especially by high school graduates.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 30%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. Literature. Newspapers. Periodicals. Radio. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. NT: 1982.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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