Miao, Northern QiandongPrint
L1 users: 1,250,000 (Wang and Mao 1995), decreasing.
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longlin county; Guizhou province: Anlong, Danzhai, Fuquan, Guanling, Huangping, Jianhe, Leishan, Majiang, Pingba, Sansui, Shibing, Taijiang, Xingren, Zhenfeng, Zhenning, Zhenyuan, and Ziyun counties, Kaili and Qingzhen municipalities.
5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao.
Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. At least 4 dialects (vernaculars). The official standard variety of Qiandong Miao is based on Yanghao, but with some similarities to other varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn].
Most domains. All ages. Youth move to the city and abandon more of their culture and language. Mixed attitudes. Attitudes are positive in countryside; neutral to negative in city. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn], especially children, who learn it at school but do not use it at home.
Bopomofo script [Bopo], no longer in use.