Hindi

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Modern Standard Hindi
Autonym
मानक हिन्दी‎ (Mānak Hindī), हिन्दी‎ (Hindī)
Population

378,000,000 in India, all users. 258,000,000 (2001 census). 120,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Total users in all countries: 381,359,750 (as L1: 260,129,750; as L2: 121,230,000).

Location

Widespread in north India: northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states; Delhi.

Language Maps
Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1950, Constitution, Article 343), also statutory provincial language in Bihar State and 12 other jurisdictions.

Dialects

Khari Boli (Dehlavi, Kauravi, Khadi Boli, Khari, Khariboli, Vernacular Hindustani). Formal vocabulary borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has 4 varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, standard Hindi); Urdu [urd]; Dakhini; Rekhta. Hindustani, though not listed separately in India, refers here to the unofficial lingua franca of northwest India. Has a lexical mixture in varying proportions of Hindi (vocabulary derived from Sanskrit) and Urdu (vocabulary derived from Persian or Arabic).

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; clause constituents partially indicated by case-marking (direct, oblique), postpositions, and word order; verbal affixation marks person, number, gender, and honorificity of subject; split ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; causatives; non-tonal; 30 consonants, 10 vowels, 2 diphthongs; stress linked to syllable weight.

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1818–2000.
Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Devanagari script [Deva], primary usage. Newa script [Newa], no longer in use, historic usage.

Other Comments

Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu could be considered co-dialects, but have important sociolinguistic differences. Hindu.

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