A language of India

Alternate Names
Bihar Ho, Ho haram, Ho jagar, Lanka Kol
Ho kaji

1,420,000 (2011 census).


Bihar state; Jharkhand state: Purbi Singhbhum district, Kolhan, Seraikella; East Singhbhum district, Dhalbhum sub-district; Odisha state: Koenjhar and Mayurbhanj districts; West Bengal state.

Language Maps
Language Status

5* (Developing).


Lohara, Chaibasa-Thakurmunda. Most understand Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well; 90%–92% comprehend narrative discourse. Kherwari (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is group name for Ho, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], and Santhali [sat], closely related languages, and other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% between most dialects, except for 3 on Ho area east and south edges.

Language Use

Vigorous. Positive attitudes. Also use Hindi [hin], Odia [ory], Sadri [sck], Santhali [sat]. Used as L2 by Birhor [biy].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Literacy program in progress. Literature. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997.


Devanagari script [Deva], used in Bihar. Latin script [Latn]. Oriya (Odia) script [Orya], used in Odisha. Telugu script [Telu]. Warang Citi script [Wara].

Other Comments

Different from Ho (Hani [hni]) of Myanmar, China, Viet Nam, Laos. Traditional religion, Hindu.

Page Views Left: