A language of India

Alternate Names
Aka, Angka, Angkae, Gusso, Hrusso, Tenae

3,000 (Van Driem 2007).


Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Thrizino sub-district, Balipho, Bhalukpong, Buragaon, Dijungonia, Gijiri, Gohainthan, Husigaon, Jamiri, Karangonia, Khuppi, Palizi, Polatari, Raghupam, Raindogonia, Tania, Tulu, and Yayom villages; East Kameng district, Seppa sub-district, Pisang village.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Hruso, Levai (Bangru). No apparent wider affiliation within Tibeto-Burman. Varieties sometimes grouped under Tibeto-Burman as Hruish. Levai is similar to Miji [sjl] and may be a distinct language. Lexical similarity: 9% between Koro [jkr] and the Hruso dialect [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages.

Language Use

Steady shift away from Hruso, especially among youth educated outside the area. Some young people, all adults. Also use Assamese [asm], English [eng], Hindi [hin], Miji [sjl]. Used as L2 by Bugun [bgg], Miji [sjl].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 48%: males 58%, females 39% (2001 census). Literature.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

’Aka’, painted. Has 2 ethnic groups (Kavatsun and Kutsun) and an additional subdivision called Miri-Akas on the other side of Kaya River (known as Khrome) who speak Mising [mrg], not Hruso. Probably not the same as Plains Miri or Hill Miri (Mising) [mrg] (Sinha 1962). Aka in East Kameng District are called Koro Aka [jkr], distinct from Hruso Aka in West Kameng. Traditional religion, Christian.

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