A language of Croatia

Alternate Names

4,200,000 in Croatia (European Commission 2006). Total users in all countries: 6,861,590 (as L1: 5,611,590; as L2: 1,250,000).

Language Maps
Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 12.1).


Kaykavski, Chakavski, Shtokavski (Ijekavski). Shtokavski is official dialect, but others recognized as valid, with much literature. Chakavski in western and northern Croatia, Dalmatian coast, and Adriatic Islands; Kaykavski in northeastern Croatia and Zagreb; dialects in other countries, like Burgenland Croatian in Austria, less intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Serbo-Croatian [hbs].


SVO; prepositions; noun head final; gender (masculine/feminine/neuter); no articles; case-marking (7 cases); verb affixes mark person, number; passives; tense and aspect; causatives; comparatives; 25 consonants, 5 vowels, 2 diphthongs; tonal (4 tones), stress is connected with tone.

Language Use

Many also use English [eng]. Some also use Standard German [deu].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 90%. Fully developed. Bible: 1831–1999.

Braille script [Brai]. Latin script [Latn], primary usage.

Other Comments

Formerly considered part of the Serbo-Croat language. Christian.

Also spoken in:

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