600,000 (2012 J. Grimes). Another 100,000 on the United States mainland. L2 users: 400,000.
Hawaii; Florida: Orlando; Nevada: Las Vegas; west coast.
None known. The basilect is barely intelligible with standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1981).
Vigorous use by 100,000 to 200,000. Native speech of a large number of those born or brought up in Hawaii, regardless of racial origin. Continuum of speech from distinct creole to standard English [eng] of Hawaii. Different speakers control different spans along the continuum, with some only speaking creole. Some communication problems at university level. Courts, literature, personal letters, local commerce, and a few songs. All ages. Mixed attitudes. Used as L2 by Hawaiian [haw].
Latin script [Latn].
Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.