Ifugao, Tuwali


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan

30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 185,000 all Ifugao (2005 UNSD). Only those below grade-school age are monolingual.


Cordillera Administrative Region: south Ifugao province.

Language Status

4 (Educational).


Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect.


VSO; prepositions; genitives, relatives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; 1 suffix, 2 infixes; passives; causatives; comparatives; V, CV, CVC.

Language Use

Vigorous. Used by other language speakers in trading and in exogamous marriages. High bilingualism; all are bilingual by the time they are in elementary school. All domains. Court, religion, commerce. Used by all. Positive attitudes. All also use Amganad Ifugao [ifa], Filipino [fil], Ilocano [ilo]. All also use English [eng], especially those over 40. Used as L2 by Keley-i Kallahan [ify].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 25,000 can read and write. Literacy rate in L2: 60%. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Dictionary. Bible: 2005.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Kiangan is the place, Tuwali the language. Christian.

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