Indonesian

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A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Bahasa Indonesia
Population

22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000), increasing. L2 users: 175,000,000 in Indonesia (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 198,208,380 (as L1: 23,208,380; as L2: 175,000,000).

Location

Widespread.

Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1945, Constitution, Article 36).

Dialects

None known. Lexical similarity: over 80% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head initial, but quantifiers before noun; 3 noun classifiers; no articles; aspect; 19 consonants, 6 vowels, 3 diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable; 2 social registers; inclusive/exclusive pronouns.

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1974–2000.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Braille script [Brai]. Latin script [Latn], primary usage.

Other Comments

Developed from literary ‘Classical Malay’ of the Riau-Johor sultanate (Sneddon 2003). Has regional variants. Muslim.

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