A language of United States

Alternate Names

No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker, Otoe Truman Dailey, of Iowa and Chiwere died in 1996 (Mithun 1999). Ethnic population: 1,150 (Golla 2007).


Oklahoma: central.

Language Status

9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians.


Iowa (Bah Kho Je, Baxoje, Báxoje ich’é, Ioway), Chiwere (Jiwele, Jiwere, Jíwere ich’é, Oto, Otoe), Missouria (Missouri, Niutaji, Nyut’chi, Ñút’achi).

Language Use

In 1999, only 4 passive speakers remained, none fluent (Golla 2007).

Language Development

Dictionary. Grammar. Language preservation activities taking place in Oklahoma (Golla 2007).

Other Comments

Iowa and Oto formerly 1 language, with some family variations cross-cutting tribal affiliations. Missouri dialect extinct for many years.

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