Javanese

Print

A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Djawa
Autonym
Jawa
Population

68,200,000 in Indonesia (2015 UNSD). Ethnic population: 95,200,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 68,277,600.

Location

Banten, Central Java, and East Java provinces; Special Region of Yogyakarta; Sumatra island: Lampung province; resettlements in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sulawesi.

Language Status

4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in central and eastern Java.

Dialects

Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Tegal, Indramayu, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banyumas. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraningrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah.

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head initial; 3 articles; 21 consonants and 8 vowels; word accent not distinctive; inclusive/exclusive pronouns.

Language Use

Also use Musi [mui], especially in South Sumatra. Used as L2 by Madura [mad], Tengger [tes].

Language Development

Fully developed. Bible: 1854–1994.

Writing

Javanese script [Java], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Muslim.

Also spoken in:

Expand All
Collapse All
Page Views Left: