Javanese

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A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Djawa
Autonym
Jawa
Population

84,300,000 (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Ethnic population: 95,200,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 84,368,500.

Location

Widespread. Mainly Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Lampung, and Yogyakarta provinces; Sumatra island: scattered; resettlements in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sulawesi.

Language Status

4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in central and eastern Java.

Dialects

Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Tegal, Indramayu, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banyumas. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraningrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah.

Typology

SVO.

Language Use

Also use Musi [mui], especially in South Sumatra. Used as L2 by Madura [mad], Tengger [tes].

Language Development
Fully developed. Bible: 1854–1994.
Writing

Javanese script [Java], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Muslim.

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