Kalanga

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A language of Zimbabwe

Alternate Names
Bakaa, Chikalanga, Kalana, Kanana, Makalaka, Sekalaña, Wakalanga, Western Shona
Autonym
Ikalanga, Tjikalanga
Population

196,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 338,000.

Location

Matabeleland South province: Bulilimamangwe and Matobo districts; Matabeleland North province: Tsholotsho district.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)).

Dialects

Lilima (Humbe, Limima, Peri), Rozvi (Abanyai, Banyai, Nyai, Wanyai), Talahundra, Romwe, Lemba (Remba), Lembethu (Rembethu), Twamamba (Xwamamba), Pfumbi, Jawunda. Talahundra has no remaining speakers. Peri are an ethnic group of Birwa and Tswapong assimilated into Kalanga and speak the Lilima dialect. Humbe are ethnically different from the Lilima but now share the same language. Similar to Nambya [nmq] and the Karanga, Zezuru, and Shangwe dialects of Shona [sna].

Language Use

Rapidly being absorbed by Ndebele [nde], though most rural members speak Kalanga. All also use Ndebele [nde] (Hachipola 1998). Also use Shona [sna]. Used as L2 by Setswana [tsn], Tsoa [hio].

Language Development
Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1999.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Most Kalanga are in Zimbabwe; most Lilima are in Botswana.

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