Kinnauri

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Kanauri, Kanaury Anuskad, Kanawari, Kanawi, Kanoreunu Skad, Kanorin Skad, Kanorug Skadd, Kinnaura Yanuskad, Kinner, Kinori, Koonawure, Kunawari, Kunawur, Lower Kinnauri, Malhesti, Milchan, Milchanang, Milchang, Tibas Skad
Population

80,100, all users. L1 users: 65,100 (2001 census). L2 users: 15,000.

Location

Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur and Lahaul Spiti districts, Chauhra to Sangla and north along Satluj river to Morang, upper Ropa river valley villages; Rampur and Shimla area; Kashmir, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh states.

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Language Status

3 (Wider communication).

Dialects

Dialect at Nichar has 79% inherent intelligibility of Sangla. Other varieties have functional intelligibility of each other. Related languages: Kanashi [xns], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], and Jangshung Tukpa [jna]. Lexical similarity: 76%–90% among varieties.

Language Use

Vigorous. Also use Hindi [hin], but with low proficiency. Used as L2 by Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 37%: men 52%, women 22%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1909–1917.
Writing

Devanagari script [Deva]. Takri (Tankri, Takari) script [Takr], no longer in use.

Other Comments

A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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