Kumaoni

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Kamaoni, Kumau, Kumauni, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni
Autonym
कुमाँऊनी‎ (Kumaaũũnii)
Population

2,080,000 (2011 census). 472,000 monolinguals (1998 SIL).

Location

Uttarakhand state: Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Almora and north Nainital (Central Kumaoni); Pithoragarh (Northeastern Kumaoni); southeast Nainital (Southeastern Kumaoni); west of Almora and Nainital (Western Kumaoni).

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni, Western Kumaoni. Reportedly, eastern dialects are different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali [gbm] and Nepali [npi].

Language Use

Home, community. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Central dialect is most accepted. Also use Hindi [hin], especially men, a few educated women, and school-aged children in towns and markets. Used as L2 by Byangsi [bee], Chaudangsi [cdn], Darmiya [drd], Gujari [gju], Rawat [jnl], Rongpo [rnp].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand (2001 census). Motivation for literacy not high. Literature. Periodicals. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1825.

Writing

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Hindu, traditional religion.

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