18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900.
Paraná State: 9 reservations between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers; Rio Grande do Sul state: 5 reservations of southeast dialect south of Uruguay river east of Passo Fundo river; southwest dialect on 7 reservations; east of Passo Fundo river; outskirts of cities in Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina state: 8 reservations between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers; São Paulo state: 3 reservations north of Paranapena river; Scattered.
Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang.
Language use varies: in some communities all speak Kaingang as L1, but not in others. Growing interest in revitalization (Golla 2007). Most also use Portuguese [por], in some vilages (Crevels 2007).
Latin script [Latn].
Alternate names now only used in old documents.