18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900.
São Paulo State, north of Paranapena river on 3 reservations; Paraná State, between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers, 9 reservations; Santa Catarina State, between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers, 8 reservations; Rio Grande do Sul State, south of the Uruguay river with the southeast dialect on 5 reservations east of Passo Fundo river, and the southwest dialect on 7 reservations; also east of Passo Fundo river and on the outskirts of important cities in Rio Grande do Sul. Scattered locations.
Central Kaingang, Paraná Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang.
Growing interest in revitalization (Golla 2007). Language use varies: in some communities all speak Kaingang as L1, in others all speak Portuguese [por] as L1, or the majority is bilingual in Portuguese (Crevels 2007).
Latin script [Latn].