Mongolian, Halh


A language of Mongolia

Alternate Names
Central Mongolian, Halh, Halha, Kalkh, Khalkha, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol, Mongolian
Монгол хэл‎ (Mongol khel)

2,640,000 in Mongolia (2016). Includes 28,100 Dariganga, 23,700 Darkhat, 22,500 Khotogoit, and 3,430 Sartul. Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 2,672,080.



Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 8(1)).


Halh (Khalkha), Dariganga, Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol, Darkhat (Darhad, Darkhad). A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no articles; case-marking (7 cases); passives; tense and aspect; causatives; 29 consonants, 14 vowels, 4 diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on first syllable or long vowel; vowel harmony; evidentiality.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. Used by all.

Language Development

Taught in all schools. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Periodicals. Radio. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible: 2003.


Braille script [Brai]. Cyrillic script [Cyrl]. Mongolian script [Mong], used prior to 1941 with a resurgence since the 1990s. Phags-pa script [Phag], no longer in use. Tibetan script [Tibt], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Buddhist, traditional religion.

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