Khowar

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A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Arniya, Chitrali, Chitrari, Citrali, Kashkari, Khawar, Patu, Qashqari
Population

270,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 289,200.

Location

North-West Frontier Province, Chitral and Peshawar districts; Northern Areas, Gilgit district, Ghizr valley, Shandur pass to Gupis; Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys, north Swat valley, Ushu; probably in Rawalpindi and other northern cities.

Language Maps
Language Status

3 (Wider communication).

Dialects

North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. Northern dialect considered more pure. Related to Kalasha [kls] but different. Lexical similarity: 86%–98% among dialects.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

The most important language of Chitral. Also use Burushaski [bsk], English [eng], Kalami [gwc], Shina [scl], Urdu [urd]. Used as L2 by Burushaski [bsk], Kalasha [kls], Palula [phl], Yidgha [ydg].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 15%–20% men, 1% women. Urdu used in schools. Newspapers. Radio programs.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], Naskh style. Arabic script, Nastaliq variant [Aran], primary usage.

Other Comments

Muslim.

Also spoken in:

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