Khowar

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A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Arniya, Chitrali, Chitrari, Citrali, Kashkari, Khawar, Patu, Qashqari
Population

L1 users: 270,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 289,200.

Location

Gilgit Baltistan province: Gilgit district, Ghizr valley, Shandur pass to Gupis; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral and Peshawar districts; Ishkhoman and Yasin valleys, north Swat valley, Ushu; probably in Rawalpindi and other northern cities.

Language Maps
Language Status

3 (Wider communication).

Dialects

North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. Northern dialect considered more pure. Related to Kalasha [kls] but different. Lexical similarity: 86%–98% among dialects.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

The most important language of Chitral. Also use Kalami [gwc]. Also use Burushaski [bsk], especially in the Gilgit District. Also use English [eng], especially among the educated. Also use Shina [scl], especially in the Gilgit District. Also use Urdu [urd], especially among the educated, and in schools. Used as L2 by Burushaski [bsk], Kalasha [kls], Palula [phl], Yidgha [ydg].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 15%–20% men, 1% women. Urdu [urd] used in schools. Newspapers. Radio.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Arabic script, Nastaliq variant [Aran], primary usage.

Other Comments

Muslim.

Also spoken in:

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