A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar
Хакас тілі‎ (Xakas tili)

42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 42,610.


Kemerovo province; Khakassia republic; Krasnoyarsk krai: north; all north of Altai mountains; scattered throughout Russia.

Language Status

5 (Developing). Statutory provincial language in Khakassia Republic (1995, Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 69).


Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Koibal (Xoibal), Kamass (Kamassian), Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Shor, Beltir. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007).

Language Use

Struggle to maintain culture and language. In some rural areas children learn it, but in cities Russian [rus] is typically the only language (Salminen 2007). Home, community. Used by all. Positive attitudes, but rural speakers want their children to learn the national language for economic advancement. Also use Russian [rus], especially at work, school, public transport, government, and for most written communication.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 50% (2007 SIL). Literacy rate in L2: 95% in Russian [rus]. Khakas books often self-published and difficult to obtain. Taught in primary schools as medium in a few schools, as subject in about 100 schools. Taught in secondary schools as a subject in selected schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2009. In urban areas, marked interest in Khakas language revival. Fewer young people speak Khakas than previous generations, but more children study it in school than 20 years ago.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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