A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kulu Ring, Kulunge

34,590 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 33,200 in Nepal (2011 census). L2 users: 1,390 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 34,590 (as L1: 33,200; as L2: 1,390).


Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Khartanga, Limkhim, Phedi, and Wasepla VDCs; Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Seduwa, and Yaphu VDCs; Sagarmatha zone: Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Chachalung, Chekma, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Gudel, Lucham, Namlung, Pelmang, Satdi, and Sotang villages.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.


Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word initial; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense; no passives or voice; nontonal; 22 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Home, friends, religion. Some young people, all adults. Also use Nepali [npi], which almost all can understand at a basic level. Used as L2 by Eastern Mewahang [emg], Nepali [npi], Western Mewahang [raf].

Language Development

High motivation for literacy. Literature. Periodicals. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible portions: 1976.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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