A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kulu Ring, Kulunge

18,700 in Nepal (2001 census).


Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Pelmang, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Lucham, Chachalung, Satdi, Gudel, Namlung, Sotang, and Chekma villages; Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Seduwa VDCs; Bhojpur district, Phedi, Limkhim, Khartanga, and Wasepla VDCs. Also in India.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality.


Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word initial; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense; no passives or voice; nontonal; 22 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes

Language Use

Home, friends, religion. Some use among children and adolescents. Almost all can understand some Nepali [npi] at a basic level.

Language Development
High motivation for literacy. Poetry. Magazines. New media. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1976.
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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