A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Tagakaolo, Tagakaulu Kalagan

69,900 (2005 UNSD). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000.


Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Digos south to Bugis and inland on Davao Gulf west shore; Soccsksargen region: South Cotabato province, Tampakan municipality; Sultan Kudarat province, Colombia municipality.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


None known. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk].


VOS, VSO; prepositions; genitives before noun heads; articles before adjectives, before and after numerals, before noun heads; relatives after noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 3 maximum prefixes, 2 maximum suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects and indirect objects when case does not, word order distinguishes given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; verb affixes mark number; ergativity; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC, CVV; nontonal.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains except church, trade. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Most also use Cebuano [ceb], Hiligaynon [hil].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 20%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 20%–30%. Literacy instruction continues for out-of-school youth and adults in non-public school and some church settings. Taught in primary schools in several tribal schools. Public schools taught in English (2007 SIL). Literature. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1964–2009.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

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