A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Kaagan, Kinalagan, Minuslim Kalagan

48,900 (2005 UNSD), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000.


Davao region: Davao del Sur province, southwest of Davao city, inland along coast; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, Samal and nearby islands, and inland on Davao gulf easten shores; Davao Oriental province, highlands; Soccsksargen region: north Cotabato province. Davao region: Davao Oriental province (eastern and western dialects); Davao del Sur province, gulf to Hagonoy and Guihing (Lupon dialect); Samal Island (Isamal dialect).

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Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Isamal, Western Kalagan, Eastern Kalagan, Lupon. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Mandaya [mry].


VOS, VSO; prepositions; articles before adjectives, before numerals, before noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 3 maximum prefixes, 2 maximum suffixes.

Language Use

Strong in communities that are mainly Kalagan, but in mixed communities speakers tend to use Cebuano [ceb]. Youth bilingual in Cebuano, some are losing Kalagan ability. Home, neighborhood, religion. Some young people, all adults. Youth only in solid Kalagan communities. Also use English [eng], Tagalog [tgl]. Also use Cebuano [ceb]. Sample showed high proficiency with narratives in Cebuano. Used as L2 by Koronadal Blaan [bpr], Tausug [tsg].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 80%. Literacy rate in L2: 80% in Cebuano [ceb], 50% in Tagalog [tgl] or English [eng]. Literature. Grammar. NT: 2012.


Latin script [Latn].

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