A language of Malaysia

Alternate Names
Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang

10,000 (Kroeger 2005), decreasing. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL).


Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Speakers of the Sonsogon dialect understand 67%–76% of a Kimaragang story (1986 P. Kroeger). Lexical similarity: 82% between Kimaragang and Sonsogon dialects.


VSO; determiners and numbers before noun head, possessors and modifiers after noun head; dual number; case-marking; 2 tenses (past, non-past) and 3 aspects; causative prefix; 18 consonants and 5 vowels; inclusive/exclusive pronouns.

Language Use

Children don’t learn it in many areas, at least not well. Mixed use: Home, Friends, Religion, Work. Some young people, all adults. Some children and adults; all elderly. Mixed attitudes. Most also use Sabah Malay [msi]. Also use English [eng], Rungus [drg]. Used as L2 by Kota Marudu Talantang [grm], Rungus [drg], Tombonuo [txa].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 85% in Standard Malay [zsm]. Dictionary. Bible portions: 1996. Agency: Persatuan Kimaragang Sabah Bersatu, Pertubuhan Kimaragang Malaysia.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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