A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumhali, Kumkale

13,610, all users. L1 users: 12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,410 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 121,000 (2011 census).


Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki zone: Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti zone: Dang district.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal.


Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Positive attitudes, though not always reflected in their language choices. All also use Nepali [npi].

Language Development
Newspapers. Periodicals. Videos. Dictionary. Texts. Agencies: Nepal Kumal Society; Kumal National Liberation Front.

Devanagari script [Deva].

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