13,610, all users. 12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. 1,410 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 121,000 (2011 census).
Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki zone: Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti zone: Dang district.
7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal.
Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different.
SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.
Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Older adults and elderly. Some use among adolescents. Positive attitudes, though not always reflected in their language choices. All also use Nepali [npi].
Devanagari script [Deva].