A language of South Sudan

Alternate Names
Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh

20,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000. Total users in all countries: 20,000 (as L1: 16,000; as L2: 4,000).


Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga and north through Katta, Boro and Kosho to Kafia Kingi, south of Radom National Park.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)).


Naka (Kresh-Boro), Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Gbaya-Gboko, Orlo (Woro), Gbaya-Dara, Dongo. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood.


SVO; prepositions; genitives, articles, relatives after noun heads; adjectives before, numerals usually before noun heads; CV, V, CCV (CVC rare); 5 tones.

Language Use

All domains. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd]. Used as L2 by Aja [aja], Mangayat [myj], Yulu [yul].

Language Development

Developed literacy materials in use. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Bible portions: 2003–2014.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

Also spoken in:

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