A language of India

Alternate Names
Kadukali, Kurka, Kurukh, Oraon, Urang, Uraon

1,750,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,804,200.


Chhattisgarh state: Raigarh and Surguja districts; Jharkhand state: Ranchi district; Odisha state: Jharsuguda and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal state: Jalpaigiri district; Assam, Bihar, and Tripura states.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Oraon. Kisan [xis] and the Oraon dialect have 73% intelligibility. Oraon becoming standard. Related to Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Different from Nepali Kurux [kxl].

Language Use

Also use Sadri [sck]. Used as L2 by Kodaku [ksz].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 62% Oraon in Chhattisgarh, 25% in Bihar (2001 census). Literature. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 2000.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Oraon is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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