461,000 in Angola, all users. L1 users: 421,000 (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 40,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,481,000 (as L1: 1,441,000; as L2: 40,000).
South central, Namibian border: Cunene and Kuando Kubango provinces.
3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Its use as an LWC has its origin in its status as the language of the powerful Kwanyama kingdom, influential in what is now southern Angola and northern Namibia throughout the colonial period up to the year 1917. Used in the eastern half of Kunene Province in church, market, business, and media domains.