421,000 in Angola (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 40,000 in Angola (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,046,000 (as L1: 1,006,000; as L2: 40,000).
South central, Namibian border: Cunene and Cuando Cubango provinces.
3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Its use as an LWC has its origin in its status as the language of the powerful Kwanyama kingdom, influential in what is now southern Angola and northern Namibia throughout the colonial period up to the year 1917. Used in the eastern half of Kunene Province in church, market, business, and media domains.