A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki, Qumuqlar
Къумукъ‎ (Qumuq)

426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 427,800.


Dagestan republic: north and east plain.

Language Status

5* (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10).


Khasavyurt, Buinaksk, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent.

Language Use

Also use Russian [rus].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: Higher where majority speak Kumyk. Literacy rate in L2: High in Russian [rus]. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. Dictionary. NT: 2007.


Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], used until 1928. Cyrillic script [Cyrl], used since 1937, primary usage. Latin script [Latn], used between 1927–1937 with a resurgence of use in 2015.

Other Comments

Different from Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim.

Also spoken in:

Expand All
Collapse All
Page Views Left: