No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 21,000 (2002 census).
Antofagasta region: El Loa province; Caspana, Peine, and Socaire (Salar de Atacama).
9 (Dormant). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253).
None known. Classified as Macro-Chibchan.
Shifted to Spanish [spa]. Fragmentary knowledge of the language and its pronunciation retained in prayers and invocations (Crevels 2007).