Kurux, Nepali


A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Kurukh, Kurukha, Kurux, Oraon, Orau, Uranw, Uraon, Urau, Uraw, “Dhagar” (pej.), “Dhangar” (pej.), “Jangad” (pej.), “Janghard” (pej.), “Jhangad” (pej.), “Jhangar” (pej.), “Jhanger” (pej.)
उरावँ‎ (urāvam̐), कुडुख‎ (kuḍukh)

33,700 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO).


Kosi zone: Bara, Jhapa, Morang, Parsa, Siraha, and Sunsari districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


None known. 83%–92% intelligible with Kurux [kru] in India and Bangladesh. Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Kurux [kru].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 2 noun classes (human, non-human); content q-word initial; 1 prefix, up to 6 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person, number and genders of subject and object; ergativity; tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 29 consonant and 10 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Home, religion. Mixed use: Friends, work, education. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Assamese [asm], Bhojpuri [bho], Maithili [mai], Marathi [mar], Nepali [npi].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 60% in Nepali [npi]. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Texts. Bible portions: 1977.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

The majority of Kurux in Nepal moved to Nepal about 150 years ago, mostly to work in indigo fields across the border in Bihar state, India. A small number came about 2 generations ago, now living in Jhapa (Van Driem 2001). All names are used interchangeably for language and ethnic names. Hindu.

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