Kalinga, Butbut


A language of Philippines

Alternate Names

15,000 (2008), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD). 1,000 monolinguals.


Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Tinglayan municipality, Dinongsay, Bugnay, Buscalan, Butbut, Kataw, Loccong, Lucnang, Ngibat, Pakak, and Tabuk city; CALABARZON region: Rizal province, Andaraya, Annenang, Bua, and Malapiat.

Language Status

4 (Educational).


None known. 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% of Ilocano [ilo]; 70% of Guinaang [knb], 47% of Tanudan [kml], 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan.


VSO; prepositions; genitives before noun heads; articles normally before adjectives, numerals, and noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 3 maximum suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects and indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; verb affixes mark number; passives; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC; nontonal.

Language Use

Home, community, church. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Most also use Ilocano [ilo], which is acquired through school, travel, media, and use in church.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 98%. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. NT: 2016.


Latin script [Latn], in development.

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

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