Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Those under 20 are mainly monolingual in Japanese (1989 T. Fukuda).
Kagoshima prefecture: Kikai and northeast Okinawa islands.
Onotsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible or very difficult with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn].
Mainly older adults. Also use Japanese [jpn], especially the younger the younger generation (Wurm and Hattori 1981).