A language of United States

Alternate Names
Northern Lushootseed, Northern Puget Sound Salish

No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. The last native speaker, Vi Hilbert, died in 2008 (2008 C. Willmsen). Ethnic population: 18,000 (Golla 2007).


Washington: Puget Sound area.

Language Status

9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation, Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe of Washington, Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians of Washington, Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, Tulalip Tribes of Washington, Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington.



Language Use

Also use English [eng].

Language Development

Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Numerous programs beginning to teach Lushootseed, in which children, parents, and elders take part; also being introduced as a language available at local colleges.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Lushootseed encompasses Southern Lushootseed [slh], Skagit [ska] and Snohomish [sno]. Lushootseed is the name that is used by most scholars for the group as a whole.

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