Malay, North Moluccan


A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Ternate Malay

700,000 (2001 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals.


North Maluku Province. Islands off of southern tip of Halmahera island; Sula and Obi island groups to south and west.

Language Status

3 (Wider communication).


Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. More similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs].

Language Use

A few communities use it as L1. Used orally between speakers of different languages. 300,000 L2 users (2001 R. Whisler).

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Bible portions: 2005–2009.
Latin script.
Other Comments

Muslim, Christian.