L1 users: 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL).
Maluku Utara province: Kota Tidore Kepaluan regency; Bacan, Halmahera west coast, Kayoa, south Mori, and Obi islands.
East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn].
Positive attitudes. Also use Indonesian [ind].
A volcanic eruption on Makian Island, transmigrations, speakers of other languages in the area and pressure from those languages have taken a toll on vitality. Transmigration project near Kao. Muslim.