A language of Papua New Guinea

Alternate Names
Musa, Musan, Musian, Siafli, Siwai

220 (2007 NTM), increasing.


Sandaun province: south of Sepik river, between Amto and Ama. 1 village.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Amto [amt]. Amto and Siawi 3% lexical similarity with Odiai [bhf]. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Arai (Left May) languages.


SOV; postpositions, genitives before noun heads; adjectives after noun heads; relatives without noun heads; question word final; maximum prefixes: 1, maximum suffixes: 3, causatives; comparatives; CV, CVV, CVVV, CCV, CCCV; nontonal.

Language Use

All domains, except with outsiders. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes. Also use Amto [amt], especially adult men. Also use Tok Pisin [tpi], especially most young people. Used as L2 by Amto [amt].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 60%–65%. Literacy rate in L2: 60%–65% in Tok Pisin [tpi]. Most children literate. NT: 1977–2013.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

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