L1 users: 20 (Bradley 2007a). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 10,700,000 (2000 census).
Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces; Heilongjiang province: some villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: small enclave northeast.
8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Manchu (Man).
Bala, Alechuxa, Jing, Lalin.
Traditional religion, Buddhist.