A language of China

Alternate Names

20 (Bradley 2007a). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 10,400,000 (2010 census).


Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces; Heilongjiang province: some villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: small enclave northeast.

Language Maps
Language Status

8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Manchu (Man).


Bala, Alechuxa, Jing, Lalin.

Language Use

Long extinct among the mainly urbanized Manchu, but still studied in an ongoing scholarly tradition (Bradley 2007a). Elderly only. Positive attitudes. All also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Used as L2 by Daur [dta].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: About 50 read and write. Literacy rate in L2: 82%. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1835.


Mongolian script [Mong], Manchu style, used since 1599. Mongolian script [Mong], Old Manchu style, no longer in use.

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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