410,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo.
Batha region: Batha Est department, Ati subprefecture, Batha Ouest department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Barh el Gazel region: southeast; Bilala dialect: Lake Fitri area east to Ati; Kuka dialect: Bokoro subprefecture, Moïto to Bokoro, and Ati to Oum Hadjer; Medogo dialect: southwest of Ati.
Some also use Chadian Spoken Arabic [shu], especially the Kuka ethnic group, who live near Oum Hadjer.
Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo are 3 ethnic groups who share a common culture and speak essentially the same language. Muslim.