A language of United States

Alternate Names
Monache, Monachi

37 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More than 20 speakers and 100 semispeakers of Western Mono. Under 30 speakers of Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 Eastern Mono (Golla 2007).


California: Sierra Nevada west side, between Yosemite National Park and King Canyon National Park; Sierra Nevada east side, Owens Valley, Lone Pine north to Big Pine.

Language Status

8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Big Pine Band Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley, Big Sandy Rancheria of Western Mono Indians of California, Bishop Paiute Tribe, Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California, Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California, Table Mountain Rancheria of California, Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation, Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation.


Eastern Mono (Owens Valley Mono), Western Mono (Monache, Northfork Mono). Related to Northern Paiute [pao].

Language Use

Shifting to English [eng]. Older adults only.

Language Development

North Fork: informal language classes, dictionary under development; Big Sandy: language classes, wordlists. Each of the communities has sponsored language revival programs (Golla 2007).

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