A language of Canada

Alternate Names

990 in Canada (2016 census). Ethnic population: 24,000 (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 3,040 (as L1: 2,940; as L2: 100).


Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve, Tyendinaga Reserve on Bay of Quinte near Kingston, and a small settlement at Wahta Mohawk Territory east of Georgian Bay; Quebec province: Caughnawaga and Oka near Montreal.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Bay of Quinte Mohawk, Lower Mohawk, Mohawks of Akwesasne, Mohawks of Kahnawá:ke, Mohawks of Kanesatake, Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, Six Nations of the Grand River, Upper Mohawk, Wahta Mohawk, Walker Mohawk.

Language Use

Some young people, all adults. Mostly older adults but a few children are native speakers (Golla 2007). Also use English [eng].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1787–2004. Immersion schools in Caughnawaga, Oka, on the Six Nations Reserve (Golla 2007).


Latin script [Latn], used since 1993.

Other Comments

Kanien’kehaka is name for Mohawk people.

Also spoken in:

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