A language of United States

Alternate Names

5,070 (2010 census). Spoken by 4,000–6,000 residents of the former territory of the Muscogee Nation and Seminole Nation in Oklahoma and by fewer than 200 of the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Golla 2007). 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye).


Oklahoma: south Alabama Creek, Creek and Seminole; Florida: Seminole of Brighton Reservation.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Creek, Seminole. Reportedly similar to Mikasuki [mik] in Florida. Dialects reportedly very similar.

Language Use

Courses taught at University of Oklahoma. Several schools introduce Creek in first primary years. Has been taught in one elementary school in Florida since 1979. Church services, ceremonial speeches. Speakers 18 and older in Oklahoma; 44 and older in Florida (2001). Most also use English [eng] (Golla 2007). Also use Mikasuki [mik]. Used as L2 by Natchez [ncz].

Language Development
Dictionary. NT: 1886–1891.

Latin script [Latn].

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