A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Nivkh, Nivkhi
Nivxgu, Нивхгу диф‎ (Nivxgu dif)

200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census).


Sakhalin province: Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, Chir-Unvd, Moskalvo, Rybnoe, Viakhtu, and other villages; Khabarovsk krai: Aleyevka village, Amur river area.

Language Status

8a (Moribund).


Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically.


SOV; postpositions; case-marking (8 cases); passives (active, hortative, reflexive, reciprocal); aspect; 31 consonant and 12 vowels; non-tonal; no adjectives.

Language Use

Seriously endangered (2000 A. Kibrik). Forced resettlement weakened use. Some scattered without regular contact with other speakers. No younger speakers in Amur region and very few on Sakhalin (Salminen 2007). Home. Older adults only. Mixed attitudes, from neutral to mildly positive. Also use Russian [rus].

Language Development

Taught through second grade in settlements at Nogliki and Nekrasovka. Not taught at Amur. Dictionary. Grammar.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl]. Latin script [Latn].

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